AMCAT Previous Papers with Solutions: English Verbal - Geekmonkey

Ques. In the question a part of the sentence is italicised. Alternatives to the italicised part is given which may improve the

construction of the sentence. Select the correct alternative. :

Today I am going to check that Raju will do his home work correctly.

Op 1: Raju must be doing his homework correctly

Op 2: Raju shall do his homework correctly

Op 3: Raju does his homework correctly

Op 4:No Change


Ques Countries which ______  still undergoing the economic processes ______ known as developing countries.

Op 1: Are, are

Op 2: were, is

Op 3: are, is

Op 4 is, were

Op 5 is, is

Correct Op 3


Ques. Read the sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The letter of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is 'D'. (Ignore - the errors of punctuation,if any) :

(A) The teacher whom we met yesterday (B) is highly qualified and (C) with very good reputation.

Op 1: (A)

Op 2: (B)

Op 3: (C)

Op 4: None


Ques. Select the correct option that fills the blank to make the sentence meaningfully complete. :

As poorer nations Industrialize aggressively, natural resources are being severely ______.

Op 1: Depleted

Op 2: Hit

Op 3: Worsened

Op 4: None

Correct Op 1


Ques.Ques. Select the correct option that fills the blank to make the sentence meaningfully complete. :

But each attempt ended in ______ failure just as attempts have failed all over the world including Britain and the US

Op 1 Spectacular

Op 2 Gloomy

Op 3 Dismal

Op 4 Intense

Correct Op 4



Ques. Select the word or phrase which best expresses the meaning of the given word. :

Agitate

Op1: Sooth

Op2: Suppress

Op3: Disturb

Op4: Refresh

Correct Op1


Ques. Select the word or phrase which best expresses the meaning of the given word. :

Photographic

Op 1: Distant

Op 2: Similar

Op 3: Exact

Op 4: Similar

Correct Op 4


Ques. Select the word or phrase which best  expresses the Opposite of the given word. :

Advent(Opposite)

Op 1: End

Op 2: Dawn

Op 3: Emergence

Op 4: Flexible

Op 5: Adamant

Correct Op 3


Ques. Select the word or phrase which best  expresses the Opposite of the given word. :

Discrete(Opposite)

Op 1: Continous

Op 2: Secretive

Op 3: Distinct

Op 4: Cautious

Op 5: Judicious

Correct Op 2


Ques. We have to

P: as we see it

Q: speak the truth

R: there is falsehood and darkness

S: even if all around us

Op 1: RQSP

Op 2: QRPS

Op 3: RSQP

Op 4: QPSR

Correct Op 4


PASSAGE-1

The impressive recent growth of certain sectors of the Indian economy is a necessary but insufficient condition for the elimination of extreme poverty.


In order to ensure that the poorest benefit from this growth, and also contribute to it, the expansion and improvement of the microfinance sector should be a national priority. Studies suggest that the impact of microfinance on the poorest is greater than on the poor, and yet another that non-participating members of communities where microfinance operates experience socio-economic gains — suggesting strong spillover effects. Moreover, well-managed microfinance institutions (MFIs) have shown a capacity to wean themselves off of subsidies and become sustainable within a few years.


Microfinance is powerful, but it is clearly no panacea. Microfinance does not directly address some structural problems facing Indian society and the economy, and it is not yet as efficient as it will be when economies of scale are realized and a more supportive policy environment is created.


Loan products are still too inflexible, and savings and insurance services that the poor also need are not widely available due to regulatory barriers.


Still, microfinance is one of the few market-based, scalable anti-poverty solutions that is in place in India today, and the argument to scale it up to meet the overwhelming need is compelling. According to Sa-Dhan, the overall outreach is 6.5 million families and the sector-wide loan portfolio is Rs 2,500 crore.


However, this is meeting only 10% of the estimated demand. Importantly, new initiatives are expanding this success story to the some of the country's poorest regions, such as eastern and central Uttar Pradesh.


The local and national governments have an important role to play in ensuring the growth and improvement of microfinance. First and foremost, the market should be left to set interest rates, not the state. Ensuring transparency and full disclosure of rates including fees is something the government should ensure, and something that new technologies as well as reporting and data standards are already enabling.


Furthermore, government regulators should set clear criteria for allowing MFIs to mobilize savings for on-lending to the poor; this would allow for a large measure of financial independence amongst well-managed MFIs. Each Indian state could consider forming a multi-party working group to meet with microfinance leaders and have a dialogue with them about how the policy environment could be made more supportive and to clear up misperceptions.

There is an opportunity to make a real dent in hard-core poverty through microfinance. By unleashing the entrepreneurial talent of the poor, we will slowly but surely transform India in ways we can only begin to imagine today.


Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What could be the meaning of the word panacea in the passage?

Op 1: Solution

Op 2: Problem

Op 3: Solution to all problems.

Op 4: Sustainable solution

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why, according to the author, should microfinance be scaled up in India?

Op 1: The demand for microfinance is high.

Op 2: It is a market-based anti-poverty solution.

Op 3: It is sustainable.

Op 4: Both 1 and 2.

Op 5: 1, 2 and 3.

Correct Op : 4




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why are saving products not available?

Op 1: Due to inflexibility of loan products.

Op 2: Due to regulatory restrictions.

Op 3: Since insurance services are not available.

Op 4: Saving products are not available.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why does the author talk about the 'entrepreneurial talent of poor' in the concluding paragraph?

Op 1: Entrepreneurship among poor is encouraged by microfinance.

Op 2: Entrepreneurship among poor is an alternate to microfinance.

Op 3: Entrepreneurship among poor is discouraged by microfinance.

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Which of the following is not a challenge faced by microfinance in India?

Op 1: Does not help the poorest.

Op 2: Efficient when economy of scale is achieved.

Op 3: Non-conducive policy environment.

Op 4: Structural problems of Indian society.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Which of the following is correct with regard to microfinance?

Op 1: The supply is more than demand.

Op 2: The demand is more than supply.

Op 3: The supply and demand are well balanced.

Op 4: None of these can be inferred from the passage.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What is the author's view about interest rates?

Op 1: The government should set them.

Op 2: There should be transparency with regard to them.

Op 3: The market forces should set them.

Op 4: Both 1 and 2.

Op 5: Both 2 and 3.

Correct Op : 5




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Which of the following will the author agree to?

Op 1: Indian economy growth will solve the problem of poverty.

Op 2: Indian economy growth is not enough to solve the problem of poverty.

Op 3: Indian economy growth aggravates the problem of poverty.

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2


GIVE people power and discretion, and whether they are grand viziers or border guards, some will use their position to enrich themselves. The problem can be big enough to hold back a country's development. One study has shown that bribes account for 8% of the total cost of running a business in Uganda. Another found that corruption boosted the price of hospital supplies in Buenos Aires by 15%. Paul Wolfowitz, the head of the World Bank, is devoting special efforts during his presidency there to a drive against corruption.

For most people in the world, though, the worry is not that corruption may slow down their country's GDP growth. It is that their daily lives are pervaded by endless hassles, big and small. And for all the evidence that some cultures suffer endemic corruption while others are relatively clean, attitudes towards corruption, and even the language describing bribery, is remarkably similar around the world.

In a testament to most people's basic decency, bribe-takers and bribe-payers have developed an elaborate theatre of dissimulation. This is not just to avoid detection. Even in countries where corruption is so common as to be unremarkable and unprosecutable—and even when the transaction happens far from snooping eyes—a bribe is almost always dressed up as some other kind of exchange. Though most of the world is plagued by corruption, even serial offenders try to conceal it.

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One manifestation of this is linguistic. Surprisingly few people say: “You are going to have to pay me if you want to get that done.” Instead, they use a wide variety of euphemisms. One type is quasi-official terminology. The first bribe paid by your correspondent, in Ukraine in 1998, went to two policemen so they would let him board a train leaving the country. On the train into Ukraine, the customs officer had absconded with a form that is needed again later to leave the country. The policemen at the station kindly explained that there was a shtraf, a “fine” that could be paid instead of producing the document. The policemen let him off with the minimum shtraf of 50 hryvnia ($25).

Another term widely used at border crossings is “expediting fee”. For a euphemism it is surprisingly accurate: paying it will keep your bags, and perhaps your contraband, from being dumped onto a floor and sifted through at a leisurely pace. (A related term, used in India, is “speed money”: paying it can get essential business permits issued considerably faster.)

Paul Lewis, an analyst with the Economist Intelligence Unit (a sister company to The Economist), describes the quasi-business terminology typically used for bribery in the post-communist privatisations of eastern Europe. A mostly useless but well-connected insider at the company is hired as a “consultant”. The consultant is paid a large official “fee”, nominally for his industry expertise, on the understanding that he will cut in the minister and other decision-makers.

A second type of euphemism dresses up a dodgy payment as a friendly favour done by the bribe-payer. There is plenty of creative scope. Nigerian policemen are known to ask for “a little something for the weekend”. A North African term is “un petit cadeau”, a little gift. Mexican traffic police will suggest that you buy them a refresco, a soft drink, as will Angolan and Mozambican petty officials, who call it a gazoso in Portuguese. A businessman in Iraq told Reuters that although corruption there is quite overt, officials still insist on being given a “good coffee”.

Double meaning can help soothe the awkwardness of bribe-paying. Baksheesh, originally a Persian word now found in many countries of the Middle East, can mean “tip”, “alms” and “bribe”. Swahili-speakers can take advantage of another ambiguous term. In Kenya a machine-gun-wielding guard suggested to a terrified Canadian aid worker: “Perhaps you would like to discuss this over tea?” The young Canadian was relieved: the difficulty could be resolved with some chai, which means both “tea” and “bribe”.

India lives in several centuries at the same time. Somehow we manage to progress

and regress simultaneously. As a nation we age by pushing outward from the

middle–adding a few centuries on either end of the extraordinary CV. We greaten

like the maturing head of a hammerhead shark with eyes looking in diametrically

opposite directions.

I don’t mean to put a simplistic value judgment on this peculiar form of “progress” by

suggesting that Modern is Good and Traditional is Bad–or vice versa. What’s hard

to reconcile oneself to, both personally and politically, is the schizophrenic nature of

it. That applies not just to the ancient/modern conundrum but to the utter illogic of

what appears to be the current national enterprise. In the lane behind my house,

every night I walk past road gangs of emaciated laborers digging a trench to lay

fiber-optic cables to speed up our digital revolution. In the bitter winter cold, they

work by the light of a few candles.

It’s as though the people of India have been rounded up and loaded onto two

convoys of trucks (a huge big one and a tiny little one) that have set off resolutely in

opposite directions. The tiny convoy is on its way to a glittering destination

somewhere near the top of the world. The other convoy just melts into the darkness

and disappears. A cursory survey that tallies the caste, class and religion of who

gets to be on which convoy would make a good Lazy Person’s concise Guide to t


Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : In summary what does the passage primarily suggest and provide evidence for?

Op 1: Corruption is always concealed in some way, both linguistically and in the process.

Op 2: Corruption exists only in developing economies.

Op 3: Corruption is an unethical practice.

Op 4: Corruption slows down GDP growth.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What could be the meaning of the word dissimulation, as can be inferred from the context it is used in first line of the passage?

Op 1: Hypocrisy

Op 2: Clarity

Op 3: Frankness

Op 4: Insult

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What best represents the author's attitude towards the rich people in the West?

Op 1: Appreciative

Op 2: Mildly critical

Op 3: Heavily critical

Op 4: Mildly appreciative

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What is the author most likely to agree to?

Op 1: People generally do not try to hide money taken as bribe.

Op 2: People hide money taken as bribe primarily to avoid detection.

Op 3: People hide money taken as bribe from view even if detection possibility is low.

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What could be the meaning of the word 'obscurantist' as inferred from the passage?

Op 1: Clear

Op 2: Unclear

Op 3: Nasty

Op 4: Polite

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why does the author calls 'progress' as peculiar?

Op 1: Because Modern is good and traditional is bad.

Op 2: Because of its unbalanced nature.

Op 3: Because it differs politically and personally.

Op 4: None of these.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What do you infer from the sentence -'For some of us, life in …...but emotionally and intellectually'?

Op 1: A person has one leg in one truck and the other in the second truck.

Op 2: A person meets with an accident.

Op 3: The nation is moving in two different directions.

Op 4: The nation is suffering from many road accidents

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : How does the author feel about 'Globalisation' in India?

Op 1: Curious

Op 2: Hopeless

Op 3: Enthusiastic

Op 4: Speculative

Op 5:

Correct Op : 4




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What does the sentence "We greaten like the maturing head of a hammerhead shark with eyes looking in diametrically opposite directions.' implies?

Op 1: Indian people are barbaric in nature.

Op 2: We are progressing in some areas and regressing in the others.

Op 3: India has a diverse culture.

Op 4: Some people are modern while the others are traditional in approach.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What do you infer from the sentence in context of the passage-'India lives in several centuries at the same time.'?

Op 1: We are progressing in some areas and regressing in the others.

Op 2: People from different countries are living in India.

Op 3: India has a diverse culture.

Op 4: Some people are modern while the others are traditional in approach.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What do you infer from the following lines-'In the lane behind my house, every night I walk past road gangs of emaciated labourers digging a trench to lay fiber-optic cables to speed up our digital revolution. In the bitter winter cold, they work by the light of a few candles.' ?

Op 1: India has a balanced mixture of both traditional and modern people.

Op 2: Progress is unbalanced.

Op 3: Digital revolution is very important for our economic growth.

Op 4: There is shortage of electricity in India.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What does the phrase "cultural insult" imply?

Op 1: People from one culture do not respect people from the other cultures.

Op 2: Disrespect of British towards Indian Culture.

Op 3: White people's definition for us.

Op 4: Ill-treatment at hands of British

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why does the response towards 'Globalisation in India' differs in different parts of India?

Op 1: Due to different literacy levels.

Op 2: Due to religious diversity in India.

Op 3: It will not benefit all sections of the society.

Op 4: It may not have all the answers to India's current problems.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3


Passage



The great event of the New York cultural season of 1882 was the visit of the sixty-twoyear-old English

philosopher and social commentator Herbert Spencer. Nowhere did Spencer have a larger or more

enthusiastic following than in the United States, where such works as ―Social Statics   and ―The

 Data of Ethics   were celebrated as powerful justifications for laissezfaire capitalism. Competition was

 preordained; its result was progress; and any institution that stood in the way of individual liberties

was violating the natural order. ―Survival of the fittest  —a phrase that Charles Darwin took from

 Spencer—made free competition a social as well as a natural law. Spencer was, arguably, the single

 most influential systematic thinker of the nineteenth century, but his influence, compared with that of

Darwin, Marx, or Mill, was short-lived. In 1937, the Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons asked, ―

Who now reads Spencer?   Seventy years later, the question remains pertinent, even if no one now

reads Talcott Parsons, either. In his day, Spencer was the greatest of philosophical hedgehogs: his

popularity stemmed from the   Page 54 fact that he had one big, easily grasped idea and a mass of

more particular ideas that supposedly flowed from the big one. The big idea was evolution, but, while

 Darwin applied it to species change, speculating about society and culture only with reluctance,

Spencer saw evolution working everywhere. ―This law of organic progress is the law of all progress,

  he wrote, ―whether it be in the development of the Earth, in the development of Life upon its

surface, in the development of Society, of Government, of Manufactures, of Commerce, of Language,

 Literature, Science, [or] Art.   Spencer has been tagged as a social Darwinist, but it would be more

correct to think of Darwin as a biological Spencerian. Spencer was very well known as an evolutionist

 long before Darwin‘s ―On the Origin of Species   was published, in 1859, and people who had limited

interest in the finches of the Galápagos had a great interest in whether the state should provide for

the poor or whether it was right to colonize India.


Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why did Spencer have a large enthusiastic following in the United States?

Op 1: Because he believed in Darwin's theory of evolution

Op 2: Because his work was perceived to justify capitalism

Op 3: Because he was a English philosopher

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Which of the following will the author agree to?

Op 1: Mill, Marx and Darwin are more famous than Spencer as of today.

Op 2: Spencer is more famous than Mill, Marx and Darwin as of today.

Op 3: Mill, Darwin, Marx and Spencer are equally famous

Op 4: Mill, Darwin, Marx and Parsons are very famous today today.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What does Talcott Parson's statement, "Who now reads Spencer?" imply?

Op 1: No one read Spencer in 1937

Op 2: He is asking a question to his students.

Op 3: Everyone should read Spencer

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What could possibly "laissez-faire" mean as inferred from the context in which it has been used in the passage?

Op 1: Restricted

Op 2: Not interfered by the government

Op 3: Unprincipled

Op 4: Uncompetitive

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : According to the author, why was Spencer so popular in the 19th Century?

Op 1: He supported capitalism

Op 2: He extended Darwin's theory of evolution to a lot of things.

Op 3: He had one broad and simple idea and many specific ideas flowed from it.

Op 4: He was a friend of Parson's.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What is the author most likely to agree to in the following?

Op 1: Darwin's idea of evolution preceded that of Spencer

Op 2: Both Darwin and Spencer got the idea of the evolution at the same time

Op 3: Spencer's idea of evolution preceded that of Darwin

Op 4: Darwin and Spencer worked on totally different models of evolution

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What must have been the most-likely response/reaction of the New York audience to Spencer's talk in 1882?

Op 1: Vindication

Op 2: Surprise

Op 3: Happiness

Op 4: Depression

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Which people is the author referring to in the statement: "people who had limited interest in the finches of the Galápagos"?

Op 1: People who were not interested in the bird finch

Op 2: People who were not interested in finches in particular from Galapagos.

Op 3: People who were not interested in animal species or natural evolution

Op 4: People who did not have interest in birds.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3


Passage


The Indian government‘s intention of introducing caste based quotas for the ―Other Backward Classes   in centrally funded

 institutions of higher learning and the prime minister‘s suggestion to the private sector to ‗voluntarily go in for reservation‘,

 has once again sparked off a debate on the merits and demerits of caste-based reservations. Unfortunately, the predictable

 divide between the votaries of ―social justice   on one hand and those advocating ―merit   on the other seems to have

once again camouflaged the real issues. It is necessary to take a holistic and non-partisan view of the issues involved. The

 hue and cry about ―sacrificing merit   is untenable simply because merit is after all a social construct and it cannot be

determined objectively in a historically unjust and unequal context. The idea of competitive merit will be worthy of serious

attention only in a broadly egalitarian context. But then, caste is not the only obstacle in the way of an egalitarian order.

After all, economic conditions, educational opportunities and discrimination on the basis of gender also contribute to the

denial of opportunity to express one‘s true merit and worth. It is interesting to note that in the ongoing debate, one side

refuses to see the socially constructed nature of the notion of merit, while the other side refuses to recognise the multiplicity

 of the mechanisms of exclusion with equal vehemence. The idea of caste-based reservations is justified by the logic of

 social justice. This implies the conscious attempt to restructure a given social order in such a way that individuals belonging

 to the traditionally and structurally marginalised social groups get adequate opportunities to actualise their potential and

 realise their due share in the resources available. In any society, particularly in one as diverse and complex as the Indian

society, this is going to be a gigantic exercise and must not be reduced to just one aspect of state policy. Seen in this light,

 caste-based reservation has to work in tandem with other policies ensuring the elimination of the structures of social

 marginalisation and denial of access. It has to be seen as a means of achieving social justice and not an end in itself.

By the same logic it must be assessed and audited from time to time like any other social policy and economic strategy.


Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What is the phrase 'Sacrificing merit' referring to?

Op 1: Killing merit.

Op 2: Selection on basis of merit.

Op 3: Encouraging reservation

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What do you mean by the word 'Egalitarian'?

Op 1: Characterized by belief in the equality of all people.

Op 2: Characterized by belief in the inequality of all people.

Op 3: Another word for reservations.

Op 4: Growth

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What does the statement- and not to convert it into a fetish of ‘political correctness’ in the passage imply?

Op 1: Reservation issue should not be converted into a political propaganda.

Op 2: Reservation issue should not be based on caste alone.

Op 3: Reservation issue should be left to the ruling government.

Op 4: None of these.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What is the author most likely to agree with?

Op 1: Caste-based reservation is the answer to India's problems.

Op 2: Gender-based reservation is the answer to India's problems.

Op 3: There is no solution to bridge the gap between privileged and under-privileged.

Op 4: None of these.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 4




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What do you mean by the word 'Votaries'?

Op 1: Advocates

Op 2: Types

Op 3: Demerits

Op 4: People

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What do you infer from the sentence ' The idea of caste-based reservations is justified by the logic of social justice' ?

Op 1: Caste-based reservation will help in providing opportunities to the socially backward classes.

Op 2: Caste-based reservation will lead to social equality amongst all classes.

Op 3: Caste-based reservation will help backward classes actualise their potential.

Op 4: All of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 4




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why does caste-bases reservation system needs to be assessed and audited from time to time?

Op 1: To measure its economic advantage to the Nation.

Op 2: To make sure that it achieves social justice for all.

Op 3: To do a cost analysis.

Op 4: None of these.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2


Passage


The economic transformation of India is one of the great business stories of our time. As stifling government regulations have been lifted, entrepreneurship has flourished, and the country has become a high-powered center for information technology and pharmaceuticals. Indian companies like Infosys and Wipro are powerful global players, while Western firms like G.E. and I.B.M. now have major research facilities in India employing thousands. India’s seemingly endless flow of young, motivated engineers, scientists, and managers offering developed-world skills at developing-world wages is held to be putting American jobs at risk, and the country is frequently heralded as “the next economic superpower.”

But India has run into a surprising hitch on its way to superpower status: its inexhaustible supply of workers is becoming exhausted. Although India has one of the youngest workforces on the planet, the head of Infosys said recently that there was an “acute shortage of skilled manpower,” and a study by Hewitt Associates projects that this year salaries for skilled workers will rise fourteen and a half per cent, a sure sign that demand for skilled labor is outstripping supply.

How is this possible in a country that every year produces two and a half million college graduates and four hundred thousand engineers? Start with the fact that just ten per cent of Indians get any kind of post-secondary education, compared with some fifty per cent who do in the U.S. Moreover, of that ten per cent, the vast majority go to one of India’s seventeen thousand colleges, many of which are closer to community colleges than to four-year institutions. India does have more than three hundred universities, but a recent survey by the London Times Higher Education Supplement put only two of them among the top hundred in the world. Many Indian graduates therefore enter the workforce with a low level of skills. A current study led by Vivek Wadhwa, of Duke University, has found that if you define “engineer” by U.S. standards, India produces just a hundred and seventy thousand engineers a year, not four hundred thousand. Infosys says that, of 1.3 million applicants for jobs last year, it found only two per cent acceptable.

There was a time when many economists believed that post-secondary education didn’t have much impact on economic growth. The really important educational gains, they thought, came from giving rudimentary skills to large numbers of people (which India still needs to do—at least thirty per cent of the population is illiterate). They believed that, in economic terms, society got a very low rate of return on its investment in higher education. But lately that assumption has been overturned, and the social rate of return on investment in university education in India has been calculated at an impressive nine or ten per cent. In other words, every dollar India puts into higher education creates value for the economy as a whole. Yet India spends roughly three and a half per cent of its G.D.P. on education, significantly below the percentage spent by the U.S., even though India’s population is much younger, and spending on education should be proportionately higher.

The irony of the current situation is that India was once considered to be overeducated. In the seventies, as its economy languished, it seemed to be a country with too many engineers and Ph.D.s working as clerks in government offices. Once the Indian business climate loosened up, though, that meant companies could tap a backlog of hundreds of thousands of eager, skilled workers at their disposal. Unfortunately, the educational system did not adjust to the new realities. Between 1985 and 1997, the number of teachers in India actually fell, while the percentage of students enrolled in high school or college rose more slowly than it did in the rest of the world. Even as the need for skilled workers was increasing, India was devoting relatively fewer resources to producing them.

Since the Second World War, the countries that have made successful leaps from developing to developed status have all poured money, public and private, into education. South Korea now spends a higher percentage of its national income on education than nearly any other country in the world. Taiwan had a system of universal primary education before its phase of hypergrowth began. And, more recently, Ireland’s economic boom was spurred, in part, by an opening up and expansion of primary and secondary schools and increased funding for universities. Education will be all the more important for India’s well-being; the earlier generation of so-called Asian Tigers depended heavily on manufacturing, but India’s focus on services and technology will require a more skilled and educated workforce.

India has taken tentative steps to remedy its skills famine—the current government has made noises about doubling spending on education, and a host of new colleges and universities have sprung up since the mid-nineties. But India’s impressive economic performance has made the problem seem less urgent than it actually is, and allowed the government to defer difficult choices. (In a country where more than three hundred million people live on a dollar a day, producing college graduates can seem like a low priority.) Ultimately, the Indian government has to pull off a very tough trick, making serious changes at a time when things seem to be going very well. It needs, in other words, a clear sense of everything that can still go wrong. The paradox of the Indian economy today is that the more certain its glowing future seems to be, the less likely that future becomes


Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Which of these could you infer according to the passage?

Op 1: Wages in the Developing countries are less as compared to wages in the developed countries

Op 2: Wages in the Developing countries are more as compared to wages in the developed countries

Op 3: Wages in the Developing countries are same as wages in the developed countries

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 1




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What does "American jobs" in the last line of the first paragraph of the passage imply?

Op 1: Jobs provided by American companies

Op 2: Jobs held (or to be held) by American people

Op 3: Jobs open to only American citizens

Op 4: Jobs provided by the American government

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : According to the passage, why India does not have enough skilled labour?

Op 1: The total amount of young population is low

Op 2: The total number of colleges are insufficient

Op 3: Students do not want to study

Op 4: Maximum universities and colleges do not match global standards.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 4




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What can you infer as the meaning of 'stifling' from the passage?

Op 1: Democratic

Op 2: Liberal

Op 3: Impeding

Op 4: Undemocratic

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : What is an appropriate title to the passage?

Op 1: Growing Indian Economy

Op 2: Higher education in India

Op 3: India's Skill Shortage

Op 4: Entrepreneurship in India

Op 5:

Correct Op : 3




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : In the third sentence of the third paragraph of the passage, the phrase "closer to community colleges " is used. What does it imply?

Op 1: Near to community colleges

Op 2: Like community colleges

Op 3: Close association to community colleges

Op 4: None of these

Op 5:

Correct Op : 2




Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : According to the passage, what is the paradox of the Indian economy today?

Op 1: The economic progress is impressive, but the poor (earning one dollar per day) are not benefited.

Op 2: The economic progress is impressive disallowing the government to take tough decisions.

Op 3: There is not enough skilled workforce and the government does not realize this.

Op 4: Government is not ready to invest in setting up new universities.

Op 5:

Correct Op :

Ques. Select the correct answer option based on the passage. : Why are salaries for skilled workers rising?

Op 1: Companies are paying hire to lure skilled people to jobs.

Op 2: American companies are ready to pay higher to skilled workers.

Op 3: Entrepreneurship is growing in India.

Op 4: There is not enough skilled workers, while the demand for them is high.

Op 5:

Correct Op : 4


Excessive amounts of mercury in drinking water, associated with certain types of industrial pollution have been shown to cause HobsoWs disease Island L has an

economy based entirety on subsistence level agriculture, modern industry of any kind is unknown The inhabitants of Island I have unusually high incidence of

Hobsons disease

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